1) Cardiovascular Diseases:
arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease, ischemia, endothelium dysfunction,
in particular those dysfunctions affecting blood vessel elasticity, restenosis, thrombosis, angina, high blood pressure, cardiomyopathy, hypertensive heart disease, heart failure, corpulmonale, cardiac dysrhythmias, endocarditis, inflammatory cardiomegaly, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, stroke and cerebrovascular disease, aortic valve stenosis, congestive heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease.
2) Inflammatory Diseases:
Acne vulgaris, asthma, autoimmune diseases (e.g., acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)), Addison's disease, agammaglbulinemia, alopecia greata, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, antiphospholipid syndrome, antisynthetase syndrome, atopic allergy, atopic dermatitis, autoimmune aplastic anemia, autoimmune cardiomyopathy, autoimmune enteropathy, autoimmunehemolytic anemia, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune inner ear disease, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, autoimmune progesterone dermatitis, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune urticaria, autoimmune uveitis, Balo concentric sclerosis, Behcet's disease, Berger's disease, Bickerstaff's encephalitis, Blau syndrome, bullous pemphigoid, Castleman's disease, celiac disease, Chagas disease, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Churg-Strauss syndrome, cicatricial pemphigoid, Cogan syndrome, cold agglutinin disease, complement component 2 deficiency, contact dermatitis, cranial arteritis, CREST syndrome, Crohn's disease, Cushing's syndrome, cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, Dego's disease, Dercum's disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, dermatomyositis, diabetes mellitus type 1, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, Dressler's syndrome, drug-induced lupus, discoid lupus erythematosus, eczema, endometriosis, enthesitis-related arthritis, eosinophilic fasciitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, erythema nodosum, erythroblastosis fetalis, essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, Evan's syndrome, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive, fibrosing alveolitis, gastritis, gastrointestinal pemphigoid, giant cell artent1s, glomerulonephritis, Goodpasture's syndrome, Grave's disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Hashimoto's encephalopathy, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, herpes gestationis, hidradenitis suppurativa, Hughes-Stovin syndrome, hypogammaglobulinemia, idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, IgA nephropathy, inclusion body myositis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, interstitial cystitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki's disease, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, linear IgA disease, lupus erythematosus, Majeed syndrome, Meniere's disease, microscopic polyangiitis, mixed connective tissue disease, morphea, MuchaHabermann disease, myasthenia gravis, myositis, narcolepsy, neuromyelitis optica, neuromyotonia, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome, Ord's thyroiditis, palindromic rheumatism, PANDAS, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Parry Romberg syndrome, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, pars planitis, pemphigus vulgaris, pernicious anaemia, perivenous encephalomyelitis, POEMS syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyalgia rheumatic, polymyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, progressive inflammatory neuropathy, psoriatic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, pure red cell aplasia, Rasmussen's encephalitis, raynaud phenomenon, relapsing polychondritis, Reiter's syndrome, restless leg syndrome, retroperitoneal fibrosis, rheumatic fever, Schnitzler syndrome, scleritis, scleroderma, serum sickness, Sjogren's syndrome, spondyloarthropathy, stiff person syndrome, subacute bacterial endocarditis, Susac's syndrome, Sweet's syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia, Takayasu's arteritis, temporal arteritis, thrombocytopenia, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, transverse myelitis, ulcerative colitis, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, vitiligo, and Wegener's granulomatosis), celiac disease, chronic prostatitis, glomerulonephritis, hypersensitivities, inflammatory bowel diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, reperfusion injury, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, transplant rejection, vasculitis, interstitial cystitis, and osteoarthritis.
3) Neurodegenerative Diseases:
Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, primary progressive aphasia, progressive supranuclear palsy, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, corticobasal degeneration, prion disorders, multiple system atrophy, hereditary spastic paraparesis, Friedreich's ataxia, and amyloidoses.
4) Other Pathological Conditions Associated with Oxidative Stress and/or an Imbalance in Redox Homeostasis:
Autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, fragile X syndrome, sickle cell disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, osteoarthritis cataract, macular degeneration, toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, oxidative stress from dialysis, renal toxicity, kidney failure, ulcerative colitis, bacterial infection, viral infections, such as HIV and AIDS, herpes, ear infection, upper respiratory tract diseases, hypertension, balding and hair loss, over-training syndrome related to athletic performance, eczema, scleroderma, atopic dermatitis, polymyositis, dermatitis herpetiformis, wound healing, male infertility.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes, congenital diabetes, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, and monogenic diabetes. Complications associated with diabetes include but are not limited to hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetes-related foot problems (e.g., diabetic foot ulcers), and diabetic retinopathy.
Bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney or renal cell cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, melanoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, wasting disease, and thyroid cancer.
Skeletal muscle, the heart, the liver, large intestine, small intestine, the brain, the skin, the limbs (e.g., arms, legs, feet, hands).
8) Pharmaceutical Compositions and Treatment Methods:
Single agent or a combination with a second therapeutic agent (e.g., an antiplatelet drug, a beta-blocker, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), a statin, fibrates, biguanides, blood pressure lowering agents, cytokines, cholesterol lowering agents, erectile dysfunction drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-thrombosis drugs, anticancer drugs, anti-diabetic drugs, and/or dietary supplements).
The pharmaceutical compositions can be formulated for parenteral, intranasal, topical, oral, or local administration, such as by a transdermal means, for prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment. Additional routes of administration include intravascular, intra-arterial, intratumor, intraperitoneal, intraventricular, intraepidural, as well as nasal, ophthalmic, intrascleral, intraorbital, rectal, topical, or aerosol inhalation administration. Sustained release administration is also specifically included in the invention, by such means as depot injections or erodible implants or components.
The composition can be formulated as a suspension, microemulsion, liposome, or other ordered structure suitable to high drug concentration.